Charles Hossein Zenderoudi is an Iranian multimedia artist and founder of the Saqqa-khaneh movement, a genre of art in Iran in the late 1950s that incorporated national, folkloric and religious elements with contemporary art. The use of cultural elements like Persian calligraphy in his works serve to create a uniquely Iranian brand of modernism, one that did not rely on Western interpretations. “I am a scholar in calligraphy but I am not a calligrapher…Like the architect who uses stones or bricks to construct a building, I use calligraphy to construct my painting,” he says about his work. Zenderoudi was born in Tehran, Iran on March 11, 1937. He studied painting and calligraphy at the Fine Art College of University of Tehran in the 1950s. In 1961, the French government granted him a scholarship at the National School of Fine Arts and thus he moved to Paris, where he later became a French national. He won the Paris Biennial in 1961 and then the Venice Biennale in 1962. In 1963, the MoMA in New York acquired his painting K+L+32+H+4, the first of his works to enter a major public collection. Other prominent art institutions followed, including the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, and the British Museum in London. Today, he lives and works between Paris and New York.